“The same cup that was filled with judgment for the messiah (Matt. 26:39) is now drunk by those who, united to his death and resurrection, receive from it only forgiveness and life. The sacraments correspond to the word (law and gospel) as the ratification of covenantal sanctions: ‘The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation (koinonia) in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread” (1 Cor. 10:16-17). Thus the union is covenantal and centers on legal and relational mediation between erstwhile enemies.
Therefore, the focus is not on substances and accidents or the way in which Christ is (or is not) present either as or with the elements. The issue is what God is doing with and through these signs. Through the Word and the sacraments, we are dislocated from this present age to come. No longer under the dominion of the flesh (i.e., the possibilities inherent in this present age), we are under the reign of the Spirit (i.e., the powers of the age to come). Of course, the recipient must receive the gift; otherwise, the sacrament becomes a sign and seal of the judgment that he or she will have to bear personally, apart from the substitutionary judgment borne by the Covenantal Mediator” (Horton, 783).